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Hermann Ebbinghaus , born January 24, , Barmen, Rhenish Prussia [Germany]—died February 26, , Halle , Germany , German psychologist who pioneered in the development of experimental methods for the measurement of rote learning and memory. Ebbinghaus received a Ph. Shortly thereafter he became assistant professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelm University, Berlin, a post he held until , when he was appointed professor at the University of Breslau. Using himself as a subject for observation, Ebbinghaus devised 2, three-letter nonsense syllables for measuring the formation of mental associations.
This learning invention, together with the stringent control factors that he developed and his meticulous treatment of data, brought him to the conclusion that memory is orderly.
In conjunction with a study of the mental capacities of Breslau schoolchildren , he created a word-completion test. Hermann Ebbinghaus. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Also in Germany, Hermann Ebbinghaus — began to study rote learning of lists of nonsense verbal items e. He maintained that the association of each word with every succeeding word was the primary mechanism in learning these lists. Pavlov in Russia offered temporary associative connections…. He maintained that learning is not mechanical and is….
Learning , the alteration of behaviour as a result of individual experience. When an organism can perceive and change its behaviour, it is said to learn. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!
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Georg Elias Müller
His father was a theologian and professor of religion at a nearby royal academy. His family was deeply involved in a revivalist orthodoxy Neuluthertum that he eventually broke away from. At 18 he attended Leipzig University where he studied history and philosophy, while there he was inducted into Herbartian Philosophy. He was always seen as studious and had an interest in Mysticism that he fulfilled by reading Goethe , Byron , and Shelley. During those two years, starting in he entered the German army as a volunteer, and took part in the Franco-Prussian War. He decided on philosophy which led him to the study of psychology. He started out with more of a focus in the humanities and studied philosophy and history.
Crumbaugh, James C(harles) (1912-)
Wolfe, Harry Kirke 10 November —30 July , psychologist, was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the son of Jacob Vance Wolfe, a farmer, lawyer, and land commissioner, and Eliza Ellen Batterton, a college professor of mathematics. Wolfe was thirteen years old when his family moved to a farm near Lincoln, Nebraska. He graduated from the University of Nebraska in with a concentration in philosophy. After teaching in Nebraska public schools for three years, he enrolled at the University of Berlin to pursue a doctorate in the classics.
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American psychologist and parapsychologist. Crumbaugh's education was interrupted by World War II , when he served as an assistant psychologist in the U. After the war he became an instructor in psychology at Memphis State University, a post he held while finishing his doctorate During the s Crumbaugh received two grants from the Parapsychology Foundation for work on the repeatability of experiments in ESP. In spite of many years of experimentation, Crumbaugh did not discover significant psi effects, but stressed the importance of the experimenter and repeatability in parapsychology. His research resulted in articles contributed to various psychological and parapsychological journals. Crumbaugh, James C.