Szamarzewskiego 89c. Problematyka, tematyka, perspektywy Mobile Media and Their Studies. Issues, Topics, Perspectives. Jacek Zydorowicz Po obu stronach kamery. Dziamski, Kulturoznawstwo czyli wprowadzenie do kultury ponowoczesnej, Wyd. In our research we applied mainly qualitative methodology assuming that it is better suited for cultural studies, i.
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Szamarzewskiego 89c. Problematyka, tematyka, perspektywy Mobile Media and Their Studies. Issues, Topics, Perspectives. Jacek Zydorowicz Po obu stronach kamery.
Dziamski, Kulturoznawstwo czyli wprowadzenie do kultury ponowoczesnej, Wyd. In our research we applied mainly qualitative methodology assuming that it is better suited for cultural studies, i. This assumption excellently corresponds with the premises of our research which require taking into consideration many areas of knowledge, such as mobile media technology, social conditions of media functioning, interactions between web users and visual aesthetics applied by them.
The platform for communications and presentation of the activities was an important element of the studies. We created the website kulturymobilne. Four main areas of research into mobility emerged during our studies, they were as follows: 1 transformations within cultural communication which occur due to mobile media, 2 transformations of privacy and intimacy, 3 significance of the place and the city and 4 understanding the issue of student culture.
A question about visual and narrative methods used in the studies became a separate issue. Therefore, when we list the techniques applied in the studies the following ones must be mentioned: content analysis, netnographics, activist and participating studies, narratives on-line interviews, story-telling , visual methods photo-essays, films, mind maps and topographic maps.
It should be emphasized that the repertoire of research methods frequently involves using more than one technique. We hope that the report will not only help determine the area of research but also facilitate understanding how the young generation perceives relationships of physical spaces and their medial experience.
I will begin by invoking an example from everyday life. Certainly everyone who uses public transport noticed how many co-passengers stare into the screens of their smartphones. Some of them use social networking sites and others read the news or e-books. This everyday situation indicates two aspects of contemporary culture interesting for me, i.
Life in the city requires from us being on the move and communicating with others. We read the news, send messages, receive pictures, check timetables, etc. We are mobile and we experience technologically mediated mobility.
Thirdly, at last, users communicate by smartphones using mainly visual means of communication: applications have a visual form, i. What is more, a significant part of our activity relies on watching, i. It should be also mentioned, which is particularly interesting for me in the context of the studies that I conduct, that a photographic camera has been transformed from an autonomic object into one of many functions attached to another device, i.
Already this everyday example shows that visuality and mobility are interlinked. In this part of the report we address the issue of using visual methods in studying phenomena that occur thanks to mobile technologies. The first part of the text orders the overlapping areas of research into visuality and mobility, whereas the second part will look into using them for the analysis of cultural experience expressed by mobile photography.
Visuality and mobility in cultural studies The diagram presented above outlines areas and correlations occurring between the research into visuality and mobility. The studied phenomena are mainly of visual and mobile character at the same time. However, undoubtedly the areas of research should be distinguished. On the side of visuality I distinguish between the studies on seeing and the studies on visual objects and practices although both seeing itself and visuality are mobile in character, after all a subject perceives the world and records it while being on the move , whereas in the area of mobility we can place studies on forms of movement in physical space moving of groups of people and objects and studies on mediated communication.
I also indicate the diversification of studies on the conditions of change of mobile media technologies. I propose their division as regards the reference to mobility. On the other hand, locative media are based on the systems of locative technologies and geomedia, hence wireless and satellite communications systems.
They include technologies which are independent of stationary location, such as mobile television which replaces a television set located in a living room, and other such as the smartphone or laptop which supersede desktop computers. The common, visual and mobile character of the analyzed phenomena becomes fully revealed only when we examine the methods of studying.
Foster, Preface, w: Vision and Visuality, red. Alpers, E. Apter, C. Armstrong, S. Buck-Morss, T. Conley, J. Crary, T. Crow, T. Gunning, M. Ann Holly, M. Jay, T. Dacosta Kaufmann, S. Kolbowski, S. Lavin, S. Melville, H.
Molesworth, K. Moxey, D. Rodowick, G. Waite, C. Recording is most frequently conducted by means of portable recording devices a camera, or a simple notebook, in the past. Analyses and interpretations capture also the way of conducting research studies e. It is worth noticing that results of the research are visually available in mobile forms. I will treat the diagram outlined here as a starting point for further ponderings over the object and methods of research into visuality and mobility.
Visuality and vision as an object of research The distinction between studies on vision and research into visual practices and objects presented in the diagram was inspired by the text whose author is Hal Foster, who in indicated two dimensions of sight as an object of reflection, distinguishing between vision and visuality. Vision concerns biological basis of seeing, whereas visuality refers to cultural aspects of seeing. Visual studies, despite their great diversity which is discussed in chapter three by Jacek Zydorowicz have most of all an interpretative dimension referring both to artistic activity and to daily production of images.
See S. Dziamski, Kulturoznawstwo, czyli wprowadzenie do kultury ponowoczesnej, Wyd. Mitchell, What Do Pictures Want? Inspired by post-structural philosophy works of Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Paul de Man and Julia Kristeva , they consider a criticism of sight-centred culture, and the consequences that it brings for the world of western European culture, as a starting point for visual studies.
Sight-centrism, anthropocentrism and Euro-centrism seem to be interconnected, and their criticism makes it possible to apply approaches stemming from post-colonial theories, feminist theories or psychoanalysis. In this specific combination of the interpretation approaches visuality serves as Foucault proposed creating symbolic mechanisms of managing the society. Although in the s and s researchers studying visuality were mainly occupied with the ways of representation of cultural contents hidden behind picture production, at the turn of the centuries the approaches started to emerge which emphasize the influence of other experiences on visuality, not only those connected with sight but also polisensory and affective ones.
If visuality is the major feature of pictures, one may ask what constitutes visuality? Studies on vision One might argue whether contemporary studies on visuality actually constitute another side of reflection on vision. However, it is important to point out the differences outlined in the area of research into vision, as in the late 20th century it emphasizes not social but psychological aspect of perception, albeit, what is interesting, the involvement of psychologists into studies on pictures has been relatively shorter than the one revealed by researchers connected with cultural trends.
Among the latter also a trace of argument appears when we ask about the relationship between naturalism and culturalism. However, the main trend is still determined by the tradition outlined in the half of the 20th century by Rudolf Arnheim, who effectively explains how biological properties are transformed by culture.
The works Art and Visual Perception and Visual Thinking for many years constituted a theoretical model which facilitated understanding how we perceive the world. Although the former is connected with a slow biological evolution and in all likelihood remains unchanged for a long time, the latter grows with history.
Gombrich or Mirzeoff , i. The key issue here is the interpretation of the content of what we can W. Almost simultaneously others appeared, i. In each turn visuality plays a significant role. It is increasingly harder to draw a clear-cut line between studies on visuality and vision. Francuz, Imagia: w kierunku neurokognitywnej teorii obrazu, Wyd. KUL, Lublin , ss. The interpretation requires also the knowledge of biological structure of organs which allow us to perceive the reality.
We should also observe cultural changeability of perceiving and its translation into physical behaviour and activity. Noticing the selectivity of vision and mutual relationships between perception coming from various senses10 is of great help in capturing cultural differences in perceiving some phenomena. Therefore, perhaps successors of Arnheim can be found not so much among the creators of developing and variously assessed research hybrids in such currents as neuro-aesthetics, but rather among psychologists who study the phenomena of imagination or memory Douwe Draaisma.
Piotr Francuz in the book Imagia: w kierunku neurokognitywnej teorii obrazu Imagia: towards a neurocognitive theory of image complains that studies on vision and vision psychology were appropriated by culture researchers in the 20th century. He writes: Paradoxically studies into image which invoke theses undoubtedly derived from cognitive psychology, perception, emotions and personality and even clinical psychology and neuropsychology were not conducted by psychologists but by anthropologists e.
As in this text I am less interested in explaining visual perception psychologically, I will return to its cultural approaches and recommend to those who would be curious to do some studies into the psychology of vision.
KUL, Lublin , pp. Jolas, Beacon Press, Boston , M. Mizera, Wyd. Aletheia, Warszawa Deleuze, F. The studies on mobility include several aspects as mobility could be perceived from philosophical and anthropological perspective directing us towards ponderings over symbols and meanings of space , or socioeconomic perspective which takes into consideration migrations of individuals and groups under the influence of technological and globalization processes.
In our research we proposed a perspective taken by cultural studies, which integrates both aspects mentioned above, and in which crucial mobility factors are created by media and methods of communication. However, it is worth remembering that the first of the above aspects, i. Even though phenomenology can be considered as a praise of place, post-structuralism began to criticise it.
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