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Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times. Among them, Enicostemma littorale blume E.
The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative, helps in curing fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, abdominal disorders, snake bite, obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties. This review provides a bird's eye view about geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E.
The use of different parts of the medicinal plant in traditional medicinal system viz. Medicinal plants act as an alternative source for treating several ailments since their usage is increasing day by day .
Enicostemma littorale Blume E. The plant parts of E. The leaf possesses hypoglycemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hepatomodulatory properties and helps in reducing obesity . Medicinal compounds derived from this plant were considered to be very effective since these were less toxic, eco-friendly, palatable, long shelf life and free from side effects .
In Indian ayurvedic medicine, E. Nampalliwar and Godatwar observed that E. The hot aqueous extract of E. The ayurvedic name of E. This tropical genus is widely distributed in South America, Africa, and Asia. Stem cylindric, glabrous with a decurrent ridge below each leaf. Leaves are sessile sometimes narrowed into a petiole-like base, longer than the internodes; lamina 5.
Inflorescence in many flowered auxiliary clusters, numerous in the axils of each pair of leaves. Flowers are white with green lines, drying yellowish, sessile or subsessile; bracts long, shorter than the calyx, lanceolate-acuminate, carinate.
Calyx tube 1—2 mm long; lobes usually unequal, 0. Corolla tube 3. Stamens inserted below the sinuses, just above the middle of the tube; filaments 1. Daily uptake of 2 g of E. The nutritional analysis report of Indian Council of Medical Research suggests that g of fresh E. The physicochemical properties of powdered leaves of E. This plant comprises of different chemical compounds. Many compounds have been isolated from the plant, E. Tanna et al. The presence of minerals like iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, silica, phosphate, chloride, sulphate and carbonate were estimated in the qualitative analysis of ash.
Natarajan and Prasad reported the presence of five alkaloids, two sterols and volatile oil . Betulin, a triterpene sapogenin was also isolated by earlier workers . Monoterpene alkaloids like enicoflavin, gentiocrucine and seven different flavonoids were isolated from the alcoholic extract and the structures were identified as apigenin, genkwanin, isovitexin, swertisin, saponarin, 5-o glucosylswertisin and 5-o glucosylisoswertisin were also isolated by Goshal et al .
The presence of catechins, saponins, steroids, sapogenin, triterpenoids, flavonoids and xanthones and a new flavone C-glucoside named as Verticilliside was isolated for the first time this species was reported by Jahan et al . Swertiamarin compound was isolated from E. Six phenolic acids like vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were also found by Desai et al .
Methanol extract of E. Swertiamarin is a representative constituent of many crude drugs, which are marketed in Japan and other countries and these crude drugs are normally evaluated by their high swertiamarin content  , . The chloroform extract shows pronounced activity against Aspergillus niger A. The ethyl acetate extract shows slight activity against A. The ethanol extract shows pronounced activity against A. Praveena et al. Among that methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of E.
Mishra and Shukla reported that E. Petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. Five different concentrations of each extracts were used in this antihelminthic activity, in which the time of paralysis and death of the worm were determined. The results indicated that an ethanolic extract of E. Many traditional Indian medicinal plants which contain large quantity of secoiridoid, swertiamarin are being used to relieve pain.
Iridoids present in a wide variety of medicinal plants possess a large number of medicinal properties. In the study by Jaishree V, in vivo anti-nociceptive activity of swertiamarin isolated from E. The percent protection observed after 45 min was A significant increase in the tail withdrawal reflex was observed for the swertiamarin treatment at both the doses with percent protections of and , respectively.
In both these methods, swertiamarin showed potent activity than standard paracetamol. These results proved that swertiamarin from E. Hyperlipidaemia is an important complication of alcohol induced liver injury since it accumulates cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver as well as in the blood leads to several complications .
Thirumalai et al. After administration of aqueous leaf extract of E. He reports that an aqueous leaf extract of E. Clinically the usages of aminoglycosidic antibiotics were limited since it induces the nephrotoxicity. Oxidative stress is the main reason for this complication. Mukundray et al. Gentamicin treated animals showed high oxidative stress in mitochondrial as well as post-mitochondrial fractions of renal tissues as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and GPx.
Treatment with E. The aerial parts of E. The extract was administered to the overnight fasted rats, one hour prior to aspirin or alcohol or pyloric ligation challenge. The ulcer index, tissue GSH levels and lipid peroxidation levels in all the models of ulcers and the volume of gastric secretion, acidity and pH were estimated in the pyloric ligation model of ulcers.
Pre-treatment with the aqueous extract of E. The prior administration of the aqueous extract also reduces the total acidity, free acidity, volume of gastric secretion and elevated the gastric pH. In addition, it was also observed that the aqueous extract inhibits the serum albumin denaturation in a dose-dependent manner.
It was reported that the methanolic extract of E. And its anti-inflammatory activity may be attributed to the antioxidant potential. The antitumour activity of methanolic extract of E. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of methanolic extract of E. Treating with methanolic extract of E. When these methanolic extract of E. After 14 days of inoculation, methanolic extract of E. Paracetamol induced hepatic injury is commonly used as an experimental model for the study of hepatoprotective effects of medicinal plant extracts and drugs.
The histological evaluation and the level of various biochemical parameters in circulation indicated the level of hepatic injury. Highly reactive trichloro free radical formation, which attacks polyunsaturated fatty acids of the endoplasmic reticulum, is responsible for the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol.
It produces hepatotoxicity by altering liver microsomal membranes in experimental animals. The study by Gite et al. The present investigation indicates that the ethanolic extract of E. These attributes provide the rationale for the use of E. The hepatomodulatory response of ethanol extract of E. The rats subjected only CCl 4 with olive oil, showed remarkable oxidative stress induced liver injury.
Supplementation of E. Further, the hepatic marker levels aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum were also restored to normal level dose-dependently after the supplementation of E.
Gupta et al. The aerial part of the E. A component of plant enhances cholesterol acyltransferase by esterification of free cholesterol in the HDL .
A new study demonstrates a new property of swertiamarin as a potent lipid lowering agent when compared to atorvastatin and it may also contributes cardioprotective and antiatheroscleroticrole effects. The swertiamarin and atorvastatin when orally fed also lowered the total serum cholesterol and triglycerides . Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects were evaluated by administrating an aqueous extract of E. The treatment with this extract decreases the activities of erythrocyte CAT, SOD and LPO levels, with an increase in reduced glutathione levels, liver and kidney cholesterol levels were also decreased in E.
The effect of an aqueous E. A significant increase in blood glucose, TBARS and hydroperoxides in liver, kidney and pancreas, with an decreased concentration of reduced glutathione and suppressed activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were also observed in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Treating diabetic rats with oral administration of aqueous E. The effectiveness of E. Hence it can be tried in clinical purpose to overcome these complications.
Phytochemical and pharmacological review on enicostemma axillare linn. (Gentianaceae)