In cooperation with the new product development, we achieved to provide users the documents and online manuals in electronic data for the first time. So that our company has broke away from the paper documentation era. The file format and the electronics data are PDF Portable Document Format compliant, copyrighted by United States Adobe Systems which has been widely accepted as the standard electronic document format and the internet document format on Web. The needs for paper documents are also taken care of in our electronic document construction.

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In cooperation with the new product development, we achieved to provide users the documents and online manuals in electronic data for the first time. So that our company has broke away from the paper documentation era. The file format and the electronics data are PDF Portable Document Format compliant, copyrighted by United States Adobe Systems which has been widely accepted as the standard electronic document format and the internet document format on Web.

The needs for paper documents are also taken care of in our electronic document construction. The manuals of control systems such as a DCS provide a vast amount of information depending on their multi-functionality and functional integration.

A conventional large-scale control system our company offers comes with more than 10, pages of paper documents. Manuals of those systems are a practical way to produce original information about the operational verifications of products in accordance with development specifications issued from the Product Development Department, and to edit it into book-bound information for each system function block, such as operation functions and control functions or information for each product software package.

However, the wide dispersion of information on CD-ROMs and electronic media on the Internet has disproved the concept that "a document equals paper. It has also completed both Japanese and English versions of electronic documents for the CS and CS series products.

Yokogawa established a project team for the purpose of improving product manuals several years ago. The project team has mainly grappled with the following subjects.

In the process of discussing these subjects, the project team started electronic document planning and electronic media became an essential component of document presentation media. According to the needs of the time for electronic media, the widespread use of highly functional PCs, and the presence of international de facto standards such as PDF and HTML, it has become essential to plan and produce electronic-based documents.

The following points were taken into account when planning electronic documents. Especially when a document such as an online manual was planned, mutual cooperation between development department personnel and documentation personnel was indispensable, since the document requires an interface with the product system software. It was the first attempt to put thousands of pages of control system documentation into online manuals.

Prior to starting this documentation a significant amount of time was spent on document planning. For readability that is compatible between documents on a CRT and paper, it became necessary to examine the following guidelines.

Taking these guidelines into account, we listened to users in various fields, identified all the described items, then devised a detailed plan and design for the entire documentation policy and structure including the table of contents for each document. In planning, the emphasis was put on the following items.

The documentation development methodology should adopt the structured programming methodology of software development. This methodology results in a easy-to-read and standardized document that can be produced in a short period of time. One point of the documentation design is to achieve the "Create Once Use Many Times" concept and also to be aware of the data structure that can be utilized in the future.

It is a matter of course that the design conforms to the basic rules of technical communication associated with general documentation. They have many common functions in their control systems, and both models have a significant amount of descriptions overlap in their documents. We applied the concept of "Use the same source for all applicable purposes" and isolated common functions from functions, which differed between the models. In the development of the CS we restructured the document map Figure 1 to common manuals and individual manuals, compiling the CS and CS documents into one set of documents.

Additionally, the pictograms that indicate each definition shown in Figure 2 are used in documents so as to denote at a glance CS and CS specific parts. This makes it possible to improve the efficiency of the next revision and to greatly reduce the number of pages.

The page layout is designed in consideration of browsing a manual on a CRT, printing the necessary pages on demand, or reading the manual as a book-bound document. The layout of the body, table of contents, index, etc.

For the ease of identification the number of colors are kept to a minimum with information required for browsing on a CRT and the information required for the printed version. Documents are printed in A4 size, but only about half a page can be read on a CRT without scrolling. Also, since the English version has a little more volume of text that the Japanese version, the English version is likely to have a page break if the corresponding text in the Japanese version runs to the bottom of the page.

A page break may result for the same reason if any description is added in a revision. Taking this factor into account, the page layout was designed so each page has as large a space as possible at the bottom of the page.

The main design items are listed below. These items are all specified as a style on the DTP tool and produced on the basis of its template. This style has achieved the readability of paper documents and has high visibility on a CRT.

The user interface has implemented the information retrieval capability that allows a description that is possibly dependent on an operating situation to be referred to or browsed, in addition to the PDF properties that allow an electronic document to be browsed and retrieved using the Acrobat Reader, and the contents as viewed on a CRT to be printed on demand.

This interface provides a document in the PDF file format that can not only be read with the Acrobat Reader, but can also be improved for use as an online manual for system software. Practically, the user interface uses the developing tool in the Acrobat Reader's browsing function, and also allows the document on a CRT to jump to the desired topic by setting links in a PDF file.

The interface provides especially easy access to the desired information when referring to detailed information about the engineering item from the window for performing engineering work. Form functions on Acrobat and JavaScript are installed as a part of the interface, and they can also function as manual information displays through a pop-up menu and user selectable list boxes.

The major items of the user interface design are described below. The information retrieval capability has been improved through appropriate links. The items to be discussed concerning the design of PDF files include the directory structure and file names in a CD-ROM, and the display magnification, thumbnails and bookmarks, to be set. Also, electronic documents require a rule for security and must be designed such that trademark and copyright descriptions, as well as precautions can be easily identified by users.

It is regrettable that the functions cannot be actually shown. We have achieved the first installation of the electronic documents on the control system by putting stress on document planning and design.

There are about 6, pages of documentation and 25, PDF link settings in the most recent Japanese version. The numbers are similar for the English version. There are two methods of retrieving the required information, as shown below. The setting of links in the reference manual enables the user to freely browse between documents. The definition items in the window of the current engineering work are displayed as a list by calling them from the Builder window.

By selecting an item the engineer wishes to inquire about from the list, the page where the item is described can be jumped to Figure 8. The definition item list changes the display contents for each Builder window. In other words, the definition item list is a sort of situation-dependent online manual. There are various methods for retrieving information.

The general retrieval procedure is given below. The objective information can be accessed by approaching each manual from the document map, or by retrieving the information from a main index item and definition item. Since the Acrobat Reader's retrieval function searches all data in the currently open field, the reference manual PDF is designed so that each block of related functions consists of one file. This has improved the retrieval-hit rate. The Acrobat Reader's print function allows the currently displayed page to be printed on demand or one volume of the document to be printed in its entirety.

The PDF property reproduces the printed matter that has to be laid out on the screen and allows it to be printed in high quality. In future it will be necessary to map out a plan to produce an online manual dependent on the situation of the so-called plant operation.

Users require an online manual from which they can quickly access information about various events that occur during plant operation. Also, approaching is a wave technological innovation in DTP and other electronic tools. A de facto standard may appear in place of the PDF file format. With a close eye on such technological trends, it is necessary to produce more user-friendly electronic documents and electronic documents that have greater reusability.

With respect to the conventional distribution of documents, a great number of man-hours and cost is required to pack and deliver paper documents. Electronic documents, however, can easily be distributed through CD-ROMs or transmitted via an intranet or the Internet.

However convenient and advanced the electronic document technology and tools are, primary importance must remain attached to the content rather than the form. With attention to user requirements, we intend to create electronic documents that have a sophisticated user interface and enriched content. Our distributed control system DCS enables automation and control of industrial processes and enhanced business performance. Over 10, plants entrust Yokogawa DCS to deliver their production goals.

Subjects regarding the systems between the Product Development Department and documentation personnel. Subjects regarding documentation including the presentation media, authoring tools, and documentation cost.

Subjects regarding the quality of manuals, including the solicitation of user requests and improvement measures. Comparing electronic and paper documents, and the proper use of them. Supporting online help situation-dependent help Utilizing intranets and the Internet.

This led to the policy described below. Since the product documents are an important part of the product, the highest priority is given to synchronizing the documentation with the product release schedule. Also, the Japanese and English versions of the documents should be released at the same time. The documents are laid out so that they can be offered either on electronic media or on paper, with consideration for bookbinding.

The total size of the documents should be reduced. The complete documents should be structured such that their readability is the prime purpose. They should not stick to such a structure as the conventional system block for each function of the development specifications or for each software package. Tools and devices suppress the increase in documentation man-hours required due to the production of electronic documents or the usage of new techniques. User interface including startup and link.

Structured documentation appropriate for browsing information. Expression of indexes, lead sentences, reference cues, etc. Rules for producing characters, figures and tables, templates, etc. Information management of version numbers, documentation date, etc.

Expression of security, PL measures, trademarks, and copyrights. To offer the necessary information to those who need it, the intended readers should be clearly defined, such as engineers, plant operators, and maintenance personnel. To remove the duplication of descriptions and browsing difficulties by defining the positioning and contents of each document, a simple and comprehensible document system should be established.

The documents should be clearly categorized by their objectives— one that must be read, and ones for reference, thus reducing the number of documents that must be read. The documents should be well structured so that they are easy to read and easy to revise if the product specification is modified or if the documents are to be altered for use with other product models.


FFCS Compact Control Station In CENTUM CS 3000 R3

The FFCS is designed to be the same overall size as the existing "uXL" control unit, which enables easy replacement of the control unit without any changes. Especially, SEN bus Serial Exchange Nest bus , which is a high-speed serial bus designed to suit the program copy and data equalization between dual redundant processor modules, has been developed as a new technology for data communication. As a result, the system has achieved an availability factor of seven 9's Under the basic concept "continually adopt new functions with assured function continuity", the CENTUM CS R3 is being constantly improved through ongoing development and by introducing the latest technologies.


CENTUM CS 1000/CS 3000 Electronic Document

High functionality and easy engineering has been realized through the implementation of the acknowledged control functions of the CENTUM CS and expanding the interoperability of communication functions with various field control equipment. Moreover, the efficiency of debugging large- scale applications has been greatly improved by expanding the "Virtual Test Function" originally developed for CS , which uses the FCS simulator of Windows NT. The trend of open system architecture is becoming an important issue with distributed control systems hereinafter abbreviated as DCSs. The control functions are no exception, either; they are required to be increasingly "open" so as to support various types of field communication. Efficient engineering and easy maintenance are also in demand in order to reduce the life-cycle costs of a plant. This demand has had a significant impact on the architecture of the control functions.

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