This form reminds us that Shiva is beyond gender, yet encompasses both genders. Shiva represents the unmanifest and Shakti the manifest; Shiva the formless and Shakti the formed; Shiva consciousness and Shakti energy, not only in the cosmos as a whole but in each and every individual. Ardhanarishwara form also illustrates how the female principle of God, Shakti, is inseparable from the male principle of God, Shiva. Ardhanarishwara in iconography is depicted as half-male and half-female, split down the middle. The Ardhanarishwara represents a constructive and generative power.
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The Ardhanareeshvara represents a constructive and generative power. Ardhanareeshvara symbolizes male and female principles cannot be separated. It conveys the unity of opposites in the universe. The male half stands for Purusha and female half is Prakriti. Ardhanareeshvara harmonizes the two conflicting ways of life: The spiritual way of the ascetic as represented by Shiva, and the materialistic way of the householder symbolized by Parvati.
It conveys that Shiva and Shakti are one and the same. A human being is not a pure unisexual organism. Each human organism bears the potentiality of both male and female sex. Neurohormonal mechanisms have been found to be greatly influencing the sexual behavior. The matching of opposites produces the true rhythm of life.
The perception of the universe and its understanding lies within the brain. Both philosophy and science aim to render intelligible to us our world of experience. Both encompass man and universe and both try to find out the origin, evaluation, and nature of the universe in order to have glimpses of the principles, involved in it. The difference between these two disciplines, therefore, is in their different approaches viz. Ancient Hindu concepts regarding brain science are, now attracting the scientific community to explore some of their mystical findings and make use of them in further understanding of brain behavior.
So Vedas, Upanisads, and Puranas are being reviewed all over the world. One of the 64 manifestations of Shiva, the man, woman form with Parvati constituting the left half of Shiva is Ardhanareeswara. The Ardhanareeswara is the concept that Shiva stands for. In this aspect, he draws the feminine into his own self. He is half man, half woman. A symbol of the Samkhya philosophy which talks of Purusha the male energy and Prakriti the female energy together makes the cosmic energy.
In this new construction, he is the Father of Brahma. And the cycle of time, the process of recreation begins all over again. Mother Shakti once propitiated Lord Shiva with such a fervent intensity that she be part of him in body and mind.
Her pleased husband through his divine powers granted her this wish. The Master then absorbed her in half of himself and thus was created the half-man half-woman aspect of Lord Shiva, symbolizing the oneness of all beings.
One can state that even in gender definition, this aspect became the fundamental root of Advaitha. This fusion of Shiva and Shakti representing the male and female halves transcends the distinction between and limitation of male and female and takes the lord to the level of beyond-gender manifest Brahman, realization of which means liberation.
Shakti part is golden, while Shiva's part is snow-white. She is substrate and he is substance. Shiva is static; Shakti is dynamic and creative. Shiva is being and Shakti is becoming. He is one; she is many; he is infinite and she renders the infinite into finite; he is formless and she renders the formless into myriad forms; but both are one.
Shiva and Shakti exist in Nirmala Turiya state stainless purity. Shiva is viewed as the holder of power, though he is inert. Shiva is Shava dead body without Shakti.
All that power in creation, maintenance, and dissolution rests with Shakti. However, the great mother does not exist without Shiva. When they become one, Ardhanareeshwara becomes a being of generative and constructive force. It is the predominance of one over the other sex which determines the sexuality. A female gamete always bears one X chromosome and a male gamete may either possess one X chromosome or on Y chromosome.
So masculinity and femininity are not mutually exclusive. Two halves of the body, therefore, remain in one organism. The primitive gonad is bisexual and has two distinctive parts: The inner medulla with the potentiality of developing into testes; and the outer cortex with the potentiality of developing into ovaries.
The presence of one healthy Y chromosome causes the cortex to regress and the testis develops; but if the chromosomes are both X, then ovary develops and the medulla is regressed.
After the testes are formed, two hormones, testosterone, and Mullerian regression factor MRF , are elaborated by them in the male fetus. The MRF causes disappearance of the Mullerian duct the female tube and the testosterone retains the Wolffian system and induces the formation of the rest of the male genitalia epididymis, vas deferens, and the male external genitals.
In the female, due to the absence of testis and not due to any influence of ovaries Wolffian system disappears and the Mullerian system differentiates into uterus and uterine tubes.
Both types of hormones are secreted in both sexes. Testes secrete not only large amount of androgen but also a small amount of estrogen. Similarly, ovaries secrete a large amount of estrogen, but in addition, they secrete a small amount of androgen. In humans, if exposed to sex hormones during a certain critical period of fetal development, the reversal in childhood and adult sexual behavior occurs. In searching for brain centers and path ways of pleasure, Heath in humans discovered brain areas for pleasurable sensation in limbic system and specifically, the septal region of the brain.
Fisher et al. An ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect, where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl. An infant inherits one pair of sex chromosomes - one X from the mother and one X or one Y from the father.
A baby who inherits the X chromosome from the father is a genetic female two X chromosomes. A baby who inherits the Y chromosome from the father is a genetic male one X and one Y chromosome.
The male and female reproductive organs and genitals both come from the same tissue in the fetus. Pseudohermaphroditism: The genitalia are of one sex, but some physical characteristics of the other sex are present. True hermaphrodism: A very rare condition in which tissue from both the ovaries and testicles is present. The child may have parts of both male and female genitals. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis MGD : An intersex condition in which there are some male structures gonad, testis , as well as a uterus, vagina, and fallopian tubes.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: This condition has several forms, but the most common form causes the genetic female to appear male. Many states test for this potentially life-threatening condition during newborn screening exams.
If the mother takes certain medications such as androgenic steroids , they may make a genetic female look more male. Lack of production of certain hormones can cause the embryo to develop with a female body type, regardless of genetic sex. Lack of testosterone cellular receptors. Even if the body makes the hormones needed to develop into a physical male, the body cannot respond to those hormones. This produces a female body-type, even if the genetic sex is male. Sexual orientation is commonly discussed as a characteristic of the individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or age.
This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals. Sexual acts and romantic attractions are categorized as homosexual or heterosexual according to the biological sex of the individuals involved in them, relative to each other.
Indeed, it is by acting — or desiring to act — with another person that individuals express their heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality. This includes actions as simple as holding hands with or kissing another person. Thus, sexual orientation is integrally linked to the intimate personal relationships that human beings form with others to meet their deeply felt needs for love, attachment, and intimacy.
In addition to sexual behavior, these bonds encompass nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment.
The traditional assumption has been that just as individuals are biologically either male or female, psychologically, they are either masculine or feminine. Freud believed that all human individuals, as a result of their bisexual disposition and cross-inheritance, combine in themselves both masculine and feminine characteristics, so that pure masculinity and femininity remain theoretical constructions of certain content. He realized the difficulty in investigating the components of the opposite sexual tendency in human subjects in psychoanalytic practice.
Instead, each individual falls somewhere on a continuum of anatomical bisexuality, conceptualized as ranging from predominantly masculine structure at one end to predominantly feminine structure at the other, with actual hermaphroditism at the midpoint. Gender cannot be designated adequately based on any one criterion.
Since a person can be clearly bisexual with respect to one variable e. In other words, there are distinct aspects to gender, each of which is important in its own right and in terms of its potential relationship to other aspects. Each aspect of gender can be conceptualized as a continuous dimension. Since everyone manifests characteristics typical of both males and females, and since individuals differ from one another in terms of the degree to which these kinds of characteristics are manifest, no aspect of gender can be described adequately in terms of two dichotomous categories.
Alfred Adler though differed from Freud in many respects, agreed on the points of psychological bisexuality of human being. He, however, thought that every individual wants to give-up femininity and strives for a masculine role. Similarly, Carl Gustavo Jung detected the feminine side of man's nature Anima and the masculine component in female psyche Animus in his archetype.
The development of the relative proportion of masculinity and femininity in an individual is dependent partly on biological and partly on learning factors. The attitudes of the parents, siblings, peers, people of the society at large, toward the child's behavior that is expected to be shown in respect of masculinity or femininity in the particular society and culture. The hermaphrodite assumes a heterosexual libido and sex role that accords primarily not with his or her internal and external somatic characteristics, but rather with his or her masculine or feminine upbringing, this is shown to be true in the case of pseudohermaphrodites.
Thus, regarding the matter of homosexuality, there have been, and are still, two opposed viewpoints concerning its origins. Quite opposed to this constitutional view of homosexuality has been that which insists that the main etiological factors in homosexuality are psychogenic rather than genetic. On 2 July , the Delhi High Court decriminalized homosexual intercourse between consenting adults, throughout India, where Section of the Indian Penal Code was adjudged to violate the fundamental right to life and liberty and the right to equality as guaranteed by the Constitution of India.
Gender identity disorder is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the gender that person identifies himself or herself as. For example, a person identified as a boy may actually feel and act like a girl. The person experiences significant discomfort with the biological sex they were born.
People with gender identity disorder may act and present themselves as members of the opposite sex.
Shri Ardhanarishwara Stotram with meaning ( अर्धनारीश्वर स्तोत्रम )
Ardhanareeshwara concept: Brain and psychiatry