AL MUHASIBI PDF

Harith ibn Asad al-Muhasibi of Baghdad was a master of Sufi ethics and the father of Sufi psychology. He is most famous for his theory of the three-part nature of the human soul. His nickname, "al-Muhasibi," refers to his practice of muhasaba, the critical examination of actions, motives, and spiritual states. He was an exemplar of ethical conduct and refused to allow any form of self-deception.

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His parents apparently left for Baghdad shortly after his birth, perhaps attracted by the many opportunities afforded by the newly founded capital. He led a normal life, owned a beautiful house, and liked sumptuous clothes.

These habits had been adapted from the life-style of Christian monks. But whereas Christian monks used to live in seclusion, a Muslim ascetic felt obliged to remain an active member of his community. Man has to recognize that sinful actions are frequently defined not by their objective reality but by the subjective attitude of the sinner. The most commendable attitude is scrupulosity, although even this can be ambiguous , because it might result in spiritual paralysis.

This seems to have been an impediment to real mystical experiences; the ruthlessness of this psychological technique buried every attempt at ecstatic exaltation under an enormous inferiority complex.

His influence on posterity was immense, especially through his pupil Junayd. During his lifetime, however, he was regarded with suspicion, and his last years were embittered by persecution. The discussion was focussed on the problem of the essence of God and the nature of his attributes.

Later on he was allowed to return to Baghdad, perhaps at the price of abandoning his theological convictions. Yet the boycott persisted: when he died there in , only four people attended his funeral.

Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Written By: Josef van Ess. See Article History. Britannica Quiz. The Middle East: Fact or Fiction? Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Sufism.

Sufism , mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. It consists of a variety of mystical paths that are designed to ascertain the nature of humanity and of God and to facilitate the experience…. Hardly any religion has been without at least traces or some features of asceticism. Arab, one whose native language is Arabic.

See also Arabic language. Before the spread of Islam and, with it, the Arabic language, Arab referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. In modern usage, it embraces any of the Arabic-speaking peoples living in….

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Harith al-Muhasibi

Recently I wrote a paper regarding one of the works of an early Sufi and scholar of kalam , al-Harith b. Asad al-Muhasibi d. Al-Muhasibi is one of the first people who combined between Sufism and kalam — the general norm for the first five centuries of the hijra was that these two trends were distinct and separate from one another. Most early Sufis had little to do with kalam , and the greatest luminaries of early kalam were not known for their tasawwuf. It was only after Abu Hamid al-Ghazali that such a marriage between Sufism and kalam became the norm, such that in our times it is hardly possible to find a person who is involved in one without the other.

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Al-Harith al-Muhasibi (d. 243 A.H) – Part One

He was born in Basra in It was his characteristic property. He was a founder of Sufi doctrine, and influenced many subsequent theologians, such as al-Ghazali. His parents left Basra for Baghdad shortly after his birth, perhaps inclined to the economic opportunities in the new capital. His father became wealthy, though al-Muhasibi refused it. Despite the affluent lifestyle available to him, he retained am ascetic quality from Al-Hasan al-Basri. The Sufis of his time has taken on certain practices, such as wearing woolen clothing, reciting the Qur'an at night, and limiting the kind and quantity of food eaten.

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Muhasibi, Al- (781–857)

His parents apparently left for Baghdad shortly after his birth, perhaps attracted by the many opportunities afforded by the newly founded capital. He led a normal life, owned a beautiful house, and liked sumptuous clothes. These habits had been adapted from the life-style of Christian monks. But whereas Christian monks used to live in seclusion, a Muslim ascetic felt obliged to remain an active member of his community. Man has to recognize that sinful actions are frequently defined not by their objective reality but by the subjective attitude of the sinner. The most commendable attitude is scrupulosity, although even this can be ambiguous , because it might result in spiritual paralysis.

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